1.改變詞類Conversion。英語一個詞能充當的句子成分較少，充當不同成分時常常要改變詞類。Insulin is used in the treatment of diabetes.This issue is of paramount importance.Rationing by points is over and rationing by the purse is in.Oceanography has been defined as ″The application of all sciences to the study of the sea″. 1990. 1
2.選詞用字Diction。Before Hugo could protest he and the others were led away. (抗議-分辯)Put a teaspoonful of tea in the pot and then you just add the boiling water to it and let it stand. (稍等片刻再喝)It's a crime you didn't finish school. (憾事)
3.詞序調整Inversion。一個句子中詞和分句的順序，英漢兩種語言往往不同。如表示時間和地點，英語常常是先小後大，而漢語是先大後小。His address is 3612 Market Street Philadelphia PA 19001 USA.Don't hesitate to come when you need help.black and white TV iron and steel company
4.省略Omission。You cannot build a ship a bridge or a house if you don't know how to make a design or how to read it.It took him a long time to reach the bottom and to couch behind a little dwarf palm.
5.增詞Amplification。英語中沒有量詞，助詞，翻譯時應根據上下文的需要予以增加。有些英語的不及物動詞必須增加賓語意思才完整。I could knit when I was seven.Without a sense of your fault how can repentance and amendment be expected﹖ 如果Walking past the Garden of Eden Adam's son asked his father ″Who owns that large estate﹖″″That's where your mother and I used to live″ replied Adam ″before she ate us out of house and home.″
6.重複Repetition。Practically every river has an upper a middle and a lower part. 上游，中游，下游If an atom contains three protons it must have three electrons to be electrically neutral.
7.正譯反譯法NegationThe Organization has not so far justified the hopes which the people set on it. (辜負)Suddenly he heard a sound behind him and realized he was not alone in the garage. (還有別人)If a patient at Beth Israel is not responding to treatment it is not uncommon for his nurse to propose another approach to his doctor. 1993. 1
8.分譯法Division。英語長句多，為了符合漢語表達習慣，可將英語長句拆成短句。It was a real challenge that those who had learned from us now excelled us. It has been rightly stated that this situation is a threat to international security.Because they tremble at the thought of being seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion they are always taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores. 1993. 6
1)It goes without saying that…不言而喻的是……
2)It is common knowledge that…眾所周知的是……
3)It occurs to me that…我突然想起
4)It is not that...but that…並不是說……而是說
5)某些含蓄否定的翻譯 Plants which refine crude ores are often located in countries other than those in which the crude ores are mined. 提煉礦石的工廠通常不是設在開採礦石的國家，而是設在其他國家。6)more...than...與其說……不如說……She is more like his mother than like his teacher.7)no more...than...和……一樣都不There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take any more than they can limit how much water you drink. 他們沒有理由限制你服用多少維生素，就像他們不能限制你喝多少水一樣。8)not...all... all is...not...並不是……都……All that glitters is not gold.Both of the books are not helpful. Everyone doesn't want to go to the concert.9)cannot...too...無論……也不過分We can't praise him too much.10)much less still less to say nothing of not to mention let alone更不用說He knows little of mathematics and still less of chemistry.In old China there was hardly any machine-building industry to say nothing of an electronic industry.All they have to do is to press a button and they can see plays films operas and shows of every kind not to mention political discussions and the latest exciting football match.11)so...that...如此……以至於And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder-kitchen rage. 12 not so much...as...與其說……不如說……Science moves forward they say not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools. 13)not...because...(否定轉移)並不是因為……The police didn't arrest me because I committed any crime. They said I was wandering on the street with the intent of committing an arrestable offense.14 anything...but...一點也不，決不 nothing...but...就是，僅僅，but for...要不是……The method of scientific investigation is nothing but the expression of the necessary mode of working of the human mind it is simply the mode by which all phenomena are reasoned about and given precise and exact explanations. Alone in a deserted house he was so busy with his research work that he felt anything but lonely. But for your timely help we couldn't have finished the work on time.15)as特殊狀語從句，譯為定語從句 ″In short″ a leader of the new school contends ″the scientific revolution as we call it was largely the improvement and invention and use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions.″ 16 what is called...所謂的，所說的……(東西)One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind feelings traits of character human nature and so on. 17)such...as...諸如……Whether to use tests other kinds of information or both in a particular situation depends therefore upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability. 18)not...not...雙重否定，可依情況譯為沒有……不……，或每一個……，都……10.注意英語慣用法，俚語和俗語的翻譯。Mr. Wilson talks a lot but Mrs. Wilson wears the trousers in their house.It seems to me what is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander公鵝.I hope she will always feel like a daughter of America and not like a stepchild.It's a lot easier to get in the hole than to get out again.